The movements involved in propelling the body upward during the positive phase of a vertical jump.
A. Lower body hip extension knee extension plantar flexion. B. Back / Spine Retroflexion C. Shoulders: anteflexion
Muscles driving the above movements, and estimated percentage of power source (Source on study below):
A.1 hip extension - Gluteus maximus : 45% - Gluteus medius : 8% - Semitendinosus : 4% - Semimembranosus : 13% - Biceps femoris (caput longum) : 4% - Adductor magnus : 16% A.2 knee extention - Rectus femoris : 16% - Musculi vasti : 83% A.3 Plantar flexion - Tibialis posterior : 2% - Flexor digitorum longus : 2% - Flexor hallucis longis : 5% - Gastrocnemius : 48% - Soleus : 39% - Plantaris : (no number added) - Peroneus longus : 2% - Peroneus brevis : 2% B. Back retroflexion - serratus posterior superior - serratus posterior inferior - splenius capitis and cervicis - erector spinae - spinalis - semispinalis - multifidus - rotares - intertransversii - interspinales C. Shoulders anteflexion: - deltoideus (front fibers: 41% - pectoralis major : 16.2 % - biceps (caput breve) : 12.7 % - supraspinatus : 4.4 % - coracobrachialis : 8.4 % - infraspinatus : 4.4 % - subscapularis : 3 %
Breakdown by posterior chains and anterior chain, or percentage of movement generated by muscles in the front or back of the body.
Hip Extension Posterior Chain ( Backside muscles – Calf, hamstring, glutes, spinal erectors, shoulders) : 84% Anterior Chain (Front side muscles Quads, shoulders) : 0% (adductor magnus : 14%) knee extension: PC : 0%, AC : 100% plantar flexion: PC : 100%, AC: 0% back retroflexion : PC : 100%, AC : 0% shoulders anteflexion : PC : 8.8%, AC : 91.2 %OVERALL CONCLUSION AND NOTES Not all movement is created only by skeletal muscle contraction, so contributions from tendons can be deduced but are not directly listed. Jumping styles, forms, and movement efficiency may vary from individual to individual and based on the purpose and sport, however knowing the proper muscles to train to create the desired movement is extremely important. Without a proper base of strength, there can be no source for power to increase. While the largest percentage of power is created by the posterior chain, all muscle groups should be strengthened properly. Finally strong muscles alone does not guarantee the explosiveness of muscles which is a determination of jumping efficiency, and explosive strength capabilities.
For more information on increasing your vertical jump click below:How to jump higher _________________ Source for percentages of muscles: (SRC: Van Lanz)
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